The Pledge of Allegiance

A Revised History and Analysis, 2007

by Dr. John W. Baer.

Copyright 2007 by John W. Baer

Illustration by Roxanna Baer.

Published by Free State Press, Inc. * 79 West Street * Annapolis, MD 21401 * 800-754-7029 * *

The Pledge of Allegiance A Revised History and Analysis, 2007, is now available on

This book could not have been written without the research of Margarette Miller and Louise Harris as reflected in their books. Special thanks are due my wife, Mary, for her editorial and research assistance and to my daughter, Roxanna Baer, for her illustrations.


Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction

Publication of the Pledge of Allegiance
Francis Bellamy, Christian Socialist
James Upham, Promoter of Patriotic Campaigns
National Public School Celebration Program
Changes in the Pledge Over the Century
Historical Questions about the Pledge
The USA Becomes a World Power
The Industrialization of America
Rural America
The End of the Gilded Age
Union and Labor Unrest
Greed, Corruption, and Inequality
Upper Class and Middle Class Reformers
The Immigrants and the American Protestants
Conflict between Public and Parochial School Systems

Chapter Two: The Youth's Companion's Pledge

The Youth's Companion Magazine
National Leader in Advertising Techniques
The Pledge of Allegiance Building
Daniel S. Ford, Businessman and Christian
Ford's Legacy in Boston
James Upham and the Premium Department
Flag over the Schoolhouse Campaign
Upham's Other Patriotic Campaigns
Upham's Early Life
The Masonic Themes of James Upham
The Lyceum League of America
Upham Arranges the Public School Celebration
National Liberty Pole and Flag Raising Ceremony
McDowell Promotes Patriotism for the World's Republics
Demise of The Youth's Companion

Chapter Three: American Socialists and Reformers

The Edward Bellamy Genealogy
Edward Bellamy's Early Life
Edward's Newspaper Work
Edward's Literary Works
Looking Backward and Socialism
Nationalist Clubs and the Nationalism Movement
Society of Christian Socialists and Francis Bellamy
Francis Bellamy as a Christian Socialist Spokesman
Politics of the Nationalist Clubs
Francis Bellamy as a Nationalist Spokesman
Edward Bellamy's Last Decade
Edward's Influence in the 20th Century
Educators and the National Education Association
John Dewey, Follower of Edward Bellamy

Chapter Four: Life and Ideas of Francis Bellamy

Family Background
Francis Bellamy's Education
Francis' Baptist Ministry
Working for The Youth's Companion
Promoting the National Public School Celebration
Writing the National Public School Celebration Program
Writing the Pledge of Allegiance
"Liberty and Justice for All"
The Public School Celebration of Columbus Day
Bellamy's Last Years at The Companion
Editor of The Illustrated American
Editor of The Duke of Stockbridge
Working for The Everybody's Magazine
Advertising Agency Account Executive
Retirement in Florida

Chapter Five: Adopting and Changing the Pledge

Early Promoters of the Pledge
Adding "of the United States of America"
Bellamy's Promotion Plan for the Pledge
Compulsory Pledge and Flag Salute
Legion Takes Leadership of American
Patriotic Education
The Catholic and Masonic Clash Continues
Congress Adds "Under God"
"Pause for the Pledge of Allegiance" Campaign

Chapter Six: Controversies over the Pledge

Authorship Controversy
Bellamy Versus Upham
Margarette Miller and Louise Harris
Legal Controversies Over Pledge Recitation Requirement
Pledge Controversies in the Schools Today
Adults and the Pledge
The Pledge in the 1988 Presidential Campaign
Historical Role of the Pledge
The Future of the Pledge

Chapter Seven: The Flag, Pledge, Anthem and Maryland Patriotism

American Patriotism Over the Centuries
Flag Rituals
Pledge of Allegiance
National Anthem
Maryland State Patriotism

Chapter Eight: "Under God" and Other Questions About the Pledge

Question 1. What Would Be the Opinions of Francis Bellamy and James Madison About "Under God" in the Pledge?

Reverend Francis Bellamy
James Madison, George Washington, and the Word "God"
Leaders in the Movement to Add "Under God" to the Pledge, 1948 to 1954
The 1950s Cold War Politics and the Pledge
The Pledge's Role in American Culture

Question 2. What Historical Changes Have Been Made in the Pledge's Wording and Ritual?

The Original 1892 Wording and the Ritual of the Pledge
The 1923 and 1924 Modifications of the Wording of the Original Pledge
1942 Modifications of the Flag Salute Ritual
1954 Modification of the Wording of the 1924 Pledge

Question 3. What is "Christian Socialism"?

What is "Socialism"?
What is a "Christian Socialist"?
Was Jesus a "Socialist"?

Question 4. Where Did Francis Bellamy Live and Work During His Lifetime?



See also The Pledge of Allegiance: A Short History.

Do you have questions or comments? Please contact:

Dr. John W. Baer
10 Taney Ave.
Annapolis, MD 21401
(410) 268 - 1743

Dr. Baer's book, The Pledge of Allegiance A Revised History and Analysis, 2007, is available on

About the Author:

Dr. John W. Baer and his wife, Mary Baer, have been researching the history of the Pledge of Allegiance for the last 20 years. Dr. Baer is a retired economist and Mary Baer is a research librarian. His Pledge of Allegiance book is footnote number one in the written US Supreme Court decision of Elk Grove School District v. Michael Newdow, June 14, 2004.

Dr. Baer taught Economics at Salem College and Anne Arundel Community College. Dr. Baer was an officer in the US Navy and an Intelligence Analyst for the National Security Agency. He is now working with the Anne Arundel County State's Attorney's Office. Mary Baer does library research at the Library of Congress.

Dr. and Mrs. Baer's most recent joint publication is "Urban Sprawl and Public Health and Community Design" in the Journal of the Transportation Research Forum (Summer 2005). Dr. Baer's most recent publication on Edward and Francis Bellamy is "Edward Bellamy's Concept of Economic Equality" in the book Revisiting the Legacy of Edward Bellamy (1850-1898), The Edwin Mellon Press (2002).

Dr. Baer has a Doctorate in Economic Education from the Catholic University of America, a Masters Degree in Business Administration from Columbia University, and an A.B. from Harvard. Mary Baer has a Masters Degree in Library Science from Columbia University and an A.B. in History from Radcliff College.

This web page is maintained by Chris Baer.